Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title:||THE INFLUENCE OF MULTIPLE FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON SOIL QUALITY, HEAVY METAL ACCULATION AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS AND TALINUM TRIANGULARE|
|Abstract:||ABSTRACT Human food chain toxicity, soil fertility and agricultural output have been shown to be influenced by application of various types of fertilizers. This research studied the influence of multiple fertilizer application on soil quality and plant heavy metal accumulation, proximate and phytochemical compositions. The different fertilizer samples used were NlSPlSKlS (CFI), N20PIOKIO (CF2), N27P13PI3 (CF3), pig manure (AMI) and chicken manure (AM2). Plant species used were Telfairia occidental is and Talinum triangulare. The experiment had four treatments and each treatment had 0.0, 2.0 and 4.0glkg soil. The seeds of the vegetables were planted and allowed to grow for a period of 12 weeks. The first sets of the experimental pots were left for a latent period of 12 weeks after the first harvest for second fertilizer application. The heavy metal composition of the different fertilizers and control soil as well as the plant species were studied using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The soil viability was tested using bacterial load, enzymatic activities and an earthworm specie as bioindicators. Molybdenum (Mo) levels (mg/kg) rated highest in the soil (1580 ± 1.20), inorganic fertilizers (CF1, 2570 ± 1.73; CF2, 2300 ± 3.60; CF3, 1340 ± 2.64) and animal manures (AMI, 1080.0 ± 2.00; AM2, 65 ± 1.73) samples, while Vanadium (V), Arsenic (As), Mercury (Hg) and Silver (A g) were not detected. Mo levels were significantly (p< 0.05) higher than the Canadian Maximum Acceptable Concentration for Fertilizers (20mg/kg), however, only CFI (0.129 kg/ha/yr) and CF2 (0.115 kg/ha/yr) samples were above the maximum annual metal addition to soil standard (0.079 kg/ha/yr). The pollution index assessment of the metals followed the sequence; Cd (33.34) > Cr (12.75) > Mg (11.62) and Cr (28.88) > Mg (14.46) > Cd (9.74) in the inorganic and organic fertilizers respectively. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) of Cd in the inorganic fertilizers followed the phosphate percentage by weight i.e. NlSPlSKlS (11.32) > N27P13K13 (6.13) > N20PIOKIO (2.84). the bioindicator were significant (p<0.04) sensitive to the different fertilizer treatment s with Total Heterotrophic Bacteria and Nitrifying Bacteria recording the highest and lowest loads in the chicken manure and NPK treated soils respectively. The bacteria groups were significantly (p<0.05) sensitive to the different fertilizers treatments. Similarly, ~~glucosidase showed the highest activities, while urease showed the lowest activity. Soil glucosidase and acid phosphatase showed significant increase (p<0.05) in the animal manure treated soils while only arylsulphatase showed significant increase (p<0.05) in the chemical treated soils. The biochemical responses of the earthworms (Eisenia Fetida) exposure to 0.1 and O.5g1kg soil application rate indicated significant (p < 0.05) level (IUIl) aspartate aminotransferase (AST) , alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid Phosphatase (ACP), catalase (CAT), and glutathione -s-transferase (GST) while albumin (ALB) showed no significant reduction (p>0.05) across the two application rate. AST, ALP and GST showed more sensibility with significant difference (p<0.05) in concentration than AL T, ACP and CAT respectively. The concentrations of Cd and Pb (ug/g dry weight) in the leaf tissues of the vegetables were significantly (p<0.05) higher than their recommended maximum risk levels of 0.20 and 0.30mg/kg only in the inorganic fertilizer treated soils in the second soil treatment except T triangulare that recorded insignificant increase (p>0.05) in the first soil treatment. Proximate values of the leaf tissues of the vegetables were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the fertilizer treated soils than control. Crude fat, protein, carbohydrate and food energy yield recorded their highest percentage values in the leave tissues of T occidentalis and T triangulare in the animal manure treated soils in the first and second fertilizer applications respectively. Alkaloids, saponins, phenols and flavonoids were detected in the two plant samples while tannins was only dectected in T triangulare. Though there was an increase in saponins and flavonoids in the T occidentalis and T triangulare grown with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg soil fertilizer application rates, at the first and second soil treated studies they were not significant (p>0.05) when compared to the control sample. They also recorded their highest values in the animal manure treated soils. This research has revealed that the practice of growing leafy vegetables using chemical fertilizers may not be safe and sustainable in the long term if abused.|
|Description:||A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED MICRO BIOLOGY, EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY, ABAKALIKI. IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY OF IN BIOCHEMISTRY|
|Appears in Collections:||Thesis & Dissertation|
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.